Sunflower is an annual plant of the family Asteraceae with thick stems, simple or branchy, with one or several heads, marginal flowers are yellow, medium ones are orange.
Sunflower is a typical plant of the steppe and forest-steppe zone. It has a high plasticity, which allows cultivating in different climatic conditions. Sunflower is the main oil crops cultivated in Russia for seeds from which the edible and industrial oils are produced. Oilcakes are used to feed farm animals, from the ashes of stems they produce pearl ash or use it as fertilizer. Tall corn varieties of sunflower (up to 4 m), giving a large green mass, are cultivated as silage crops.
The main application of the sunflower is sunflower oil production. It is used as edible oil in its natural form and in the production of margarine, mayonnaise, fish and canned vegetables, bakery and confectionery products.
Product of sunflower oil hydrogenation is margarine. The oil is also used for technical purposes in the paint and soap industry. In some countries, waste cooking oil is used as additive for motor fuels.
Wastes from the production of sunflower oil (cake and meal) are used as high-protein feed for livestock. Sunflower seeds, freed from the skin (husk) and sunflower kernel are widely used in cooking, baking and confectionery industry.
Contaminants: stones, particles of ore, slag, minerals; parts of stems, leaves, baskets, husks; corn, peas, wheat, bindweed, barley, oats, sclerotia, damaged seed, moldy or rotten seeds, split seeds.
Sunflower seed sorting with the means of the ZORKIY color sorter